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Purified basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMVs) were prepared from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas using a Percoll density gradient technique. Enrichments of the Na+/K+-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase activities of these vesicles were 15.4- and 1.2- fold, respectively. The presence of amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ exchange was demonstrated. Contrary to electrogenic 2Na+/1H+ exchange on apical membranes from the same tissue, kinetic studies of Na+ transport by these basolateral membranes indicate an electroneutral antiport with a Km of 28±1.7 mmol l21 and a Jmax of 1.74±0.13 mmol mg21 min21. Amiloride interacted at a single binding site (Ki=39mmol l21) and external Li+ was shown to be an effective competitive inhibitor of the exchange process (Ki=493mmol l21). The presence of a membrane-potential-sensitive, Na+-accepting ion channel was also demonstrated. The basolateral Na+/H+ exchanger physiologically resembles members of the NHE family of Na+/H+ antiporters described in vertebrates and departs from the apical electrogenic system previously described in lobster. Whether or not the basolateral Na+/H+ antiporter is an NHE isoform remains to be determined.