This study examined the effects of forewarning arid discounting messages on the evaluational consequences of powerless language use. The specific forewarning message contained information on types of powerless language (including hesitations) and their effects. The general forewarning message excluded mention of hesitations. The discounting message cautioned against making trait attributions based on powerless language behaviors. In Experiment #1, listeners exposed to the specific and general forewarning messages gave lower competence ratings to the lecturer and were less likely to recommend that he be hired as an instructor. The discounting message did not moderate negative evaluations of the lecturer. In Experiment #2, a one week delay was inserted between the forewarning and discounting messages and the oral presentation. No significant differences were found between the activation conditions and the control condition. The results of this study suggest that the theory of implicit prototypes may explain how the evaluative listening process forms impressions of power· less and powerful sources.
Vinson, Larry; Johnson, Craig E.; and Hackman, Michael Z., "Explaining the Effects of Powerless Language Use on the Evaluative Listening Process: A Theory of Implicit Prototypes" (1993). Faculty Publications - School of Business. 44.