The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to test rigorously the measurement equivalence of the Independent and Interdependent Self-Construal Scales (Gudykunst et al., 1994) across three cultural groups and for males and females, and (b) to determine the comparative amount of varianc,e in self-perceived leadership communication style that can be predicted by self-construal orientation, culture, and biological sex. College students from the United States (n = 224), New Zealand (n = 218), and the former Soviet republic of Kyrgyzstan (n = 228) responded to the self-construal scales and the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (Hemphill & Coons, 1957). Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the Independent and Interdependent Self-Construal Scales should be considered as two distinct onejactor solutions rather than two factors of the same construct as previously assumed. Multiple groups comparisons indicated that, with one minor exception, measurement on each of the self-construal scales was invariant across cultures and sexes, thus providing evidence of the validity of the hvo scales when used for cross-cultural research.
Johnson, Craig E., "Self-Construal Orientation: Validation of an Instrument and a Study of the Relationship to Leadership Communication Style" (1999). Faculty Publications - School of Business. 48.