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Abstract

In addition to the current social and political circumstances, the appearance of heresies and reform movements during the Middle Ages. was largely determined by the educational tendencies and movement of humanism, which concentrated on the matter of the human being. Thisarticle offers a digressive analysis that examines the appearance, essence, and significance of Bogomilism, Catharism, Waldensians and their implications for later reform movements—more specifically Protestantism. It should be emphasized that in this context, such ideas, characteristic of medieval heresies, impacted Protestantism, as seen in the works of John Wycliffe (1328-1384) and Jan Hus (1369-1415). In fact, they were qualified to be Protestants even before the appearance of Protestantism as a movement, and Martin Luther (1483-1546), the bearer of the Reformation for his time, was well-informed of their works. Luther was also familiar with the movement of the Waldensians, which certainly had its own impact on the further development and establishment of Protestantism, even though it followed a period of mutual cooperation between the two communities.

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