Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Ministry (DMin)



First Advisor

Phillip Carnes, DMin

Second Advisor

A. J. Swoboda, PhD


Chapter 1 introduces the problematic issue around communication between the three major divergent worldviews, known as: 1) innocence/guilt, 2) honor/shame, and 3) power/fear. Chapter 2 is focused on the biblical roots describing the three negative emotions of guilt, shame, and fear. These problematic emotions birthed three worldviews, which are identified as three culture-types. Comparing the differences in these three culture-types helps to explain the millennials’ mindset shift. They are moving away from their original guilt/innocence mindset toward a shame/honor mindset. This shift has resulted in a communication gap that causes them to abandon their childhood churches.

People acquire their primary needs differently depending on their cultural mindset: guilt/innocence, shame/honor, and fear/power. These differences in mindsets cause drastically different responses to life experiences. Understanding these three culture-types and the different ways people acquire their needs is a solid beginning toward understanding the separation between baby boomer churches and the emerging adult population of millennials.

This foundational understanding is followed by acknowledging three developed theories of Christ’s atonement, which provide solutions for each of the three mindsets: substitutionary theory, satisfaction theory, and ransom theory. Chapters 3, 4, and 5, respectively, return to the primary thesis of millennials’ issues of 1) needing to deal with their shame issues, 2) needing to answer their identity question of “Who am I?” and finally 3) needing to fulfill their drive for belonging by answering the question, “Where do I belong?” Chapter 6, the dissertation conclusion, focuses on solutions for the Church and preachers regarding reframing philosophies of ministries and preaching methods. These are designed to give insight and understanding helpful for institutional Baby- Boomer-led churches to bridge this gap to millennials.

Included in

Christianity Commons