Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Leadership in Global Perspectives (DLd)



First Advisor

Diane Zemke, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Ekaputra Tupamahu, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Jason Clark, Ph.D., DMin


Whether one is overseas or within their own home culture, when working cross-culturally scriptural contextualization is necessary to reduce confusion. When developing Chinese leaders, differing world views have caused conflict and confusion especially concerning an understanding of Scripture and the person of Christ. Westerners teaching, working, and living in a Chinese context participate in either widening or narrowing the philosophical gap between the East and the West concerning their understanding of Scripture. My hope is that Western leaders will see the value in alternative interpretations and understanding of the Scripture based on Chinese foundational narratives. Misunderstandings of cultural differences have led to conflict, heresy, and racial bias. In Section 1, Scriptural contextualization is explained in the identified three foundational Chinese narratives. First is Confucian Hierarchy and the influence that it has on leadership models in family and work as well as the church. Secondly, the concept of shame both individually and communally is explored. Lastly, Chinese Pragmatism with an emphasis on those actions the end justifies within a communal ethic. Understanding that these three influences the Chinese communities and their worldview opens one up to begin to see Scriptures from a different perspective. In Section 2, the three foundation Chinese narratives are viewed through the lenses of Chinese historical and political challenges. In Section 3, I look at how Westerners can begin to change some of their preconceptions when the Chinese narratives are understood. Within this are also alternative views and values when viewing particular Scripture verses and themes. Sections 4 through 6 explain the five-part video series that helps introduce culture, common understandings, misunderstandings, and dominant narratives that will assist a Westerner working with and/or teaching in a Han Chinese context. These videos will help one reflect on the importance of Scriptural contextualization and Chinese cultural adaptability.


On August 29 2022, this degree of Doctor of Ministry with a concentration in Leadership and Global Perspectives (DMin) was exchanged for a Doctor of Leadership in Global Perspectives (DLd), with the approval of George Fox University, ATS, and NWCCU.

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