Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


School of Education

First Advisor

Ginny Birky

Second Advisor

Dane Joseph


This study examined the relationship between the amount of time a student receives in general education and achievement scores for reading and math. Students selected were previously identified with a learning disability in the Newberg School District, and they were enrolled in classes during the 2014-2015 school year. Using a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), this study observed the correlation between students’ federal placement code and student achievement scores for both reading and math. For students with disabilities who also have an Individual Education Plan (IEP), the federal placement code identifies the amount of time a student spends in general education. In addition to the relationship between placement and achievement scores, this study examines other variables in association with placement including gender, race, socioeconomic status, and grade level. This study provides correlational information showing a predictable increase in student achievement scores as students spend more time in general education. There is also an observed decrease in student achievement scores the more students are removed from general education classes and instruction. The results of this study may guide IEP teams and decision makers in students’ future placement decisions.