A mathematical model of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery under discharge is presented as simplified from a standard electrodynamics model. This nonlinear reaction–diffusion model of a battery cell is solved using an operator splitting method to quickly and accurately simulate sulfuric acid concentration. This splitting method incorporates one-sided approximation schemes to preserve continuity over material interfaces encompassing discontinuous parameters. Numerical results are compared with measured data by calculating battery voltage from modeled acid concentration as derived from the Nernst equation.
Published in IEEE Transactions On Energy Conversion, Vol. 26 (4) pp. 1109-1117, 2011 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6034518&filter%3DAND%28p_IS_Number%3A6083464%29