The implicit association test (IAT) is a method used to examine associations individuals make between concepts and evaluations (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995). The typical finding with the IAT is that RTs are faster when the concepts and evaluations share the same response key. While the IAT has been used to examine a variety of associations, factors influencing these associations are still under consideration. For instance, Klauer et al. (2010) examined aspects of cognitive control in the IAT. They included measures related to switching mental sets, inhibition of responses, and working memory capacity. They found that switching between mental sets was related to IAT performance. In this experiment, participants completed a Simon task, Stroop task, and the flower-insect IAT. Participants showed typical Simon effect and Stroop interference. IAT results were consistent with Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz (1998). While covarying Simon performance had no impact on the IAT, covarying Stroop performance did reduce the size of associations found between flowers and insects across conditions. These results suggest that the ability to inhibit one response in favor of another contributes to IAT findings.
Koch, Christopher and Meaders, Elizabeth, "The Impact of Stroop Interference and the Simon Effect on Implicit Association Test Performance" (2018). Faculty Publications - Psychology Department. 61.