Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)


Graduate Department of Clinical Psychology

First Advisor

Wayne Adams

Second Advisor

Kathleen Gathercoal

Third Advisor

Patrick Stone


Self-efficacy is associated with a person’s level of confidence in adequately performing tasks, and has implications for health behaviors among persons with disabilities who are at higher risk for poor physical and mental health than the general population. Prospective research studies investigating the therapeutic benefits of sports for enhancing self-efficacy, particularly among persons with disabilities, are few. The following prospective study investigated the benefits of adaptive golf for increasing self-efficacy among active duty military personnel and veterans with disabilities, as well as its impact on their physical and mental health.

The study enrolled 41 participants of whom 13 completed an adaptive golf 8-week program. Participant mean age was 36.2 years, 78% were males, and 22% were females. Results indicated no statistically significant changes on self-efficacy measures after an 8-week golf clinic rehabilitation program. A trend, however, toward enhanced golf self-efficacy was observed at the conclusion of the golf clinic program. Also, at the end of the program, no statistically significant changes were observed for self-reported levels of fatigue, pain intensity, pain frequency, anxiety, or depression. Even so, change in a therapeutic direction was observed for these health-related variables. The lack of statistically significant results may be attributed to a small sample size. Implications for further study were examined, and the potential factors underlying the low retention rate in the golf clinic program were explored.

Included in

Psychology Commons