Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)


Graduate Department of Clinical Psychology

First Advisor

Mary Peterson

Second Advisor

Elizabeth Hamilton

Third Advisor

Kathleen Gathercoal


This study employs a longitudinal, cohort-sequential design (Schaie, 1965) to evaluate the effectiveness of Kelso’s Choice (KC), a behavioral intervention program, in 3 cohorts of 3rd and 4th grade students from a rural elementary school over the course of 2 academic years. The study evaluates the impact of KC on development of social self-efficacy, as measured in 2 domains: (a) social self-efficacy, as measured by student reports from the Children’s Self- Efficacy in Peer Interactions (CSPI; Wheeler & Ladd, 1982), the Social Problem Solving Measure (SPSM; Dodge, Bates, & Pettit, 1990) and teacher reports from the Social Competence Scale (SCS; Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group, 1991) and the teacher survey of KC principles used by students in the classroom and on the playground; and, (b) student behavior as measured by the school’s referral system.

This study revealed 4 major findings: (a) Kelso’s Choice contributes to the development of student’s social self-efficacy and demonstrates a “staying power” over time; (b) the greatest gains in student social self-efficacy were evidenced in the first year of exposure; (c) teachers are likely to recognize changes in student behavior and social skills before students’ self-perception changes; and (d) development of students’ social self-efficacy appears to depend on consistent systemic reinforcement.

Included in

Psychology Commons