James L. Born

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)


Graduate Department of Clinical Psychology


The ecological changes of human society especially in Western civilization via scientific, industrial, and technological revolutions have altered the foundations of what "masculinity" means in the l.990's. This study was designed to discriminate and predict three masculine sexual orientation groups based upon father-son relations, gender, religious spirituality, psychological maltreatment/abuse, and shame. Data were obtained from 92 male volunteer participants (gay=32, heterosexual=32, x-gay=28) who identify as Christians or who affiliate with a Christian organization. Instruments used were the Boyhood Gender conformity Scale (BGCS), the Father Forgiveness Perception Scale (FFPS), the Home Environment Questionnaire (HEQ) (i.e., Child Abuse Trauma Scale), Internalized Shame Scale (ISS), the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid (KSOG), the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ), the Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ), the Religious Identification and Commitment Scale (RICS), and the Sexual Trauma Scale (STS). The KSOG, PIQ, and group affiliation provided three criterion variables. Total scores on the BGCS, HEQ, ISS, PARQ, and RICS provided five predictor variables. The PIQ provided demographic information for descriptive analysis, group profiles, and group homogeneity. The PIQ and two experimental scales (FFPS & STS) added alternative predictors. Two discriminant functions were generated. The first function, Wilks' Lambda = .39, Chi Square (10) 67.43, R < .001, accounted for 61% of the variance of group membership. The second function, Wilks' Lambda .68, Chi Square (4) = 28.01, R < .001 accounted for 39% of the variance of group membership. The BGCS, ISS, and HEQ were related to the first function. The RICS and PARQ were related to the second function. The BGCS exerted the strongest influence of the first discriminant function, ;n:=.87. The RICS exerted the strongest influence on the second discriminant function, The first function discriminated between heterosexual subjects and the other two groups. The second function discriminated between the gay and x-gay subjects. Overall the two discriminant functions correctly classified the participants 77% of the time versus about 35% chance classification. Sixty-nine percent (n=22) of the gay participants, 84% (n=27) of the heterosexual participants, and 79% (n=22) of the gay participants were correctly classified. The findings indicate that boyhood masculine gender nonconformity is a strong indicator of adult homosexuality (gay & x-gay) and that high Christian religious commitment and identity is a strong indicator of the x-gay homosexual population.

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