The significance of foot muscle function associated with flat feet is unclear. It is reported that flat feet have significantly decreased lateral forefoot pressure during ambulation with increased midfoot contact area and increased pressure under the big toe. There are passive mechanisms in the foot that support the arch during static standing, but cannot produce energy for dynamic activity. The two most plausible explanations for energy generation of the midfoot for dynamic activity are muscle contributions or recoil of stretched soft tissue (i.e. plantar fascia and other ligaments) or a combination. No studies to date evaluate the ability of foot muscle training to alter foot pressure patterns in participants with flat feet.
Seidl, Lacey; Keefer, Josh; Walker, Miranda; Montgomery, Austin; and Houck, Jeff, "Influence of 4-Week Exercise Program on Clinical and Biomechanical Measures of Foot Function" (2017). Student-Faculty Research - School of Physical Therapy. 36.