Quaker Studies


This paper summarizes our knowledge of the occupational background of English Quakers as a preliminary to an analysis of the occupations of Scottish Quakers in the nineteenth century, based upon the primary sources of records of births, marriages and burials. The same increase in middle-class occupations, including the professions, is evident in Scotland, but the process of embourgeoisement seems to have been slower in Scotland, and by the end of the nineteenth- century merchants and retailers were the largest group in the Society there, rather than the professions. There is also evidence of regional variations in the occupations noted.



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