Date of Award
Behaviorism may be most easily defined after contrasting it with other forms of psychology. Until the advent of behaviorism in 1912, all psychology was built upon a subject matter called consciousness or mind, as definitions of psychology show: James: "Psychology is the description and explanation of states of consciousness as such." Angell: " Psychology is commonly defined as the science of consciousness... Consciousness we can only define in terms of itself." Thorndike: "Human psychology deals with the thoughts and feelings of human beings and seeks to explain the facts of intellect, character, and personal life." Seashore: "Psychology is the science of mental health... the science of experience and behavior of the organism." Baldwin: "We may define psychology as the science of the phenomena of consciousness."
Clapp, Philip S., "Behaviorism: An Exposition and Critical Examination" (1928). Western Evangelical Seminary Theses. 142.