Study One examined the influence of initial use of hesitations and hedges on evaluations of witnesses and their persuasiveness in a budget hearing context. Results indicate that the negative attributions generated by the use of powerless language cannot be overcome by subsequent use of powerful talk. Study Two examined the relationship between the frequency of powerless language use and impression formation. For award/character and dyhamism a perceptual threshold appeared to operate. The results of both studies suggest that auditors are very sensitive to the influence of powerless talk in formal settings.
Johnson, Craig E. and Vinson, Larry, "Placement and Frequency of Powerless Talk and Impression Formation" (1990). Faculty Publications - School of Business. 28.