Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Business Administration (DBA)


School of Business

First Advisor

Dr. Justine Haigh, PhD

Second Advisor

Dr. Paul Shelton, PhD

Third Advisor

Dr. Ben Carlson, PhD


Sandwiched between the "Gen-Xers" and the "Baby Boomers," the Millennials are now the largest generation in the workforce. They also have a (mostly undeserved) reputation of being pampered, over-protected, lazy, spoiled, failures. Millennials often shun grownup responsibilities for which the term "adulting" was coined. Primary adulting responsibility is planning for retirement. This study addressed that issue and had its origins in the author's practice as an Accountant and Income Tax Preparer, as well as his profession as a Business and Accounting Professor/Instructor at various colleges and universities.

It became apparent to the researcher that clients and students, particularly those in the Millennial Generation, may not be adequately preparing themselves for their eventual retirement. This could represent a significant future problem as both the government and the private-sector have substantially reduced the safety-net for future retirees by increasingly shifting the responsibility for retirement planning from institutions to individuals. Aware of many recent changes in the retirement landscape, including government-sponsored programs, tax considerations, private programs, and investment instruments, the researcher conducted an extensive review of the pertinent literature and designed a study to evaluate the awareness and preparedness of a limited number of College Students (Business Majors) in South Florida.

The study is intended to ascertain awareness, preparedness regarding retirement, and retirement expectations of a purposeful subset (sample) consisting of 12 young adults (age 21-33), South Floridian college students. To increase the reliability and validity of the study findings, a qualitative method using a narrative design was selected. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews, read documents, and looked for themes related to millennial students' awareness of retirement Issues, their retirement preparedness, and future expectations. The narrative approach helped to develop a sequence of factors (events) to form a cohesive story. It permitted an interpretation of meanings that had influenced participants' understandings and shaped their awareness of retirement issues, retirement preparedness, and future expectations during early adult life.

Findings from the study suggest that the development of financial awareness, retirement preparation, and retirement expectations are important for Millennials. The results also indicate that participants are confident they will have sufficient income to cover living expenses during their retirement. However, millennial retirement expectations are not well aligned with the planning steps they've taken to date. As a group, Millennials still heavily rely on their parents, family, and partners for financial support.