Date of Award

Fall 8-3-2022

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Medical Science (DMSc)


Department of Physician Assistant Medicine

First Advisor

Justin M. Gambini, DMSc, PA-C, DFAAPA


In North America, epilepsy affects between 16 and 51 people 100,000, with the most affected being those with lower socioeconomic status1. Most ambulance services carry benzodiazepines, but what happens if administration of these drugs do not terminate seizure activity? The American Epilepsy Society concluded that 50% of patients do not respond to benzodiazepines if they have been stable and compliant on typical antiepileptic drugs and they experience a seizure7. A literature review was done looking at alternative treatment options for status seizures, specifically ketamine administration. Multiple case reviews, literature reviews and retrospective studies demonstrate the effectiveness of ketamine administration for terminating status epileptic seizures3,4,5,6,7, 10,11 . Ketamine is shown to be an effective agent for seizure termination but it's lacking randomized clinical trials proving its objective effectiveness.