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Excerpt: "Servant-leadership was not a leadership theory developed through empirical studies, but more a philosophy of life first articulated by Robert Greenleaf (1904-1990) (Beazley, 2003). Scholars and writers have been criticizing servant-leadership as soft (Ebener, 2011; Nayab, 2011) and lacking a coherent conceptual framework (Eicher-Catt, 2005), an integrated theoretical development (van Dierendonck, 2011), and empirical support (Northouse, 2016). In response to these critiques and public interest, some scholars and writers have organized servant-leadership into a variety of elements: characteristics (Liden, Panaccio, Meuser, Hu, & Wayne, 2014; Spears, 2002), behaviors (Liden et al., 2014), pillars (Sipe & Frick, 2009), dimensions (van Dierendonck & Nuijten, 2011), practices (Keith, 2008), attributes (Russell & Stone, 2002), subscales (Barbuto & Wheeler, 2006), subscores (Laub, 1999), and virtues (Patterson, 2003). Furthermore, Laub (1999), Liden et al. (2014), Patterson (2003), Russell and Stone (2002), and van Dierendonck (2011) have proposed theoretical models for servant-leadership."


Originally published in The International Journal of Servant-Leadership, 2018, vol. 12, issue 1, 245-284.