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In the present study, we explored the role of resilience in predicting self-esteem in Nicaraguan adolescents, as well as the impact of poverty on the relationship between self-esteem and resilience for this unique population. Our sample consisted of 1,673 high school students (863 females, 810 males) who completed self-report surveys measuring various aspects of wellbeing, self-esteem, resilience, and general socioeconomic class. For the entire sample, social skills was the strongest predictor of self-esteem (β = .18, p < .001), followed by family (β = .13, p < .001), and belonging (β = .12, p < .001). For those above the poverty line, social skills, family, and belonging still contributed most to self-esteem, however coefficients for each factor were stronger for this subgroup (β = .21, p < .001, β = .18, p < .001, and β = .18, p < .001, respectively). For those self-reported below the poverty line, while social skills (β = .19, p < .001) and belonging (β = .14, p < .001) remained strong predictors of self-esteem, family was not included in the model. This could suggest that adolescents living in poverty are relying more on peer relationships and less on family for self-esteem, as poverty is known to disrupt family cohesiveness (Vázquez et al., 2007). Ultimately, more research is needed to investigate the relationship between self-esteem and resilience for adolescents and families living in Nicaragua.