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Introduction/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore validity of the paper pull test (PPT) to assess hallux flexion strength and function in persons with hallux valgus (HV). The following hypotheses were tested: 1) The PPT is valid for inferring 1st MTP flexion strength and heel rise (HR) performance (e.g. heel height). 2) A specified threshold of force during the PPT can be identified that discriminates patients with HV. 3) Muscle activity (abductor hallucis [AH], flexor hallucis brevis [FHB]), in patients with HV will be distinct from controls across three tasks: 1) PPT, 2) lowering phase of a HR, and 3) rising phase of a HR.


Originally published in Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics, 5(4) DOI: 10.1177/2473011420S00280 ©The Author(s) 2020