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The problem of this study was to show that the ideas of suffering and chastening individually are derived from more than one original term and are universal realities throughout biblical history on the basis of terminology which appears in most books of the Bible, that both suffering and chastening are realities in human experience, and that suffering comprises one of the essential instruments in the greater purpose of the experience of chastening.

The reality of suffering is one of the most universal facts of human experience. From a child's first suffering of hunger pangs to the experience of death this fact is a recurring reality of life. People will gladly spend a fortune to remove or alleviate suffering. If there is any work of grace available in the relation of suffering to chastening, the Christian should be alerted to them and use them.

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