Quadrupole-ion mobility-time-of-flight (Q-IM-TOF) mass spectrometers have revolutionized investigation of native biomolecular complexes. High pressures in the sources of these instruments aid transmission of protein complexes through damping of kinetic energy by collisional cooling. Since adducts are removed through collisional heating (declustering), excessive collisional cooling can prevent removal of non-specific adducts from protein ions, leading to inaccurate mass measurements, broad mass spectral peaks, and obfuscation of ligand binding. We show that reducing the source pressure using smaller aperture source sampling cones (SC) in a Waters Synapt G2-Si instrument increases protein ion heating by decreasing collisional cooling, providing a simple way to enhance removal of adducted salts from soluble proteins (GroEL 14-mer) and detergents from a transmembrane protein complex (heptameric Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin, αHL). These experiments are supported by ion heating and cooling simulations which demonstrate reduced collisional cooling at lower source pressures. Using these easily-swapped sample cones of different apertures is a facile approach to reproducibly extend the range of activation in Synapt-type instruments.
Wilson, Jesse W.; Donor, Micah T.; Shepherd, Samantha O.; and Prell, James S., "Increasing Collisional Activation of Protein Complexes Using Smaller Aperture Source Sampling Cones on a Synapt Q-IM-TOF Instrument with a Stepwave Source" (2020). Faculty Publications - Department of Biological & Molecular Science. 163.