Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Ministry (DMin)



First Advisor

Peter Aschoff

Second Advisor

Shane Sebastian

Third Advisor

Jason Clark


This dissertation answers the question of how to start spiritual movements amongst young adults and university students in Spain. It begins by examining the current cultural context of present day Spain, exploring why Christianity is in decline. In the Introduction it argues for understanding Spain as being characteristic of Bauman’s liquid modernity. Here the dissertation adopts Bauman’s typologies of liquid modern society being populated by tourists and vagabonds, constantly on the move, but without destination. Chapter One discusses the need for community as the base structure for mission and the importance of missional theology (missio Dei) before suggesting missional communities as the way forward in addressing the context of liquid modern Spain. Chapter Two begins by investigating historic and indigenous European missional movements, namely within the monasticism. This investigation supports the need for community and incarnation in effective missional ministry. It also raises the importance of contemplative spirituality to forming effective missional community and being a spiritual witness and antidote against the psychological fragmentation of liquid modernity. Chapter Two concludes by suggesting monastic missional communities. Chapter Three looks at the role of pilgrimage as a contemplative, and even missional, spiritual exercise for monastic missional communities. The spiritual exercise of pilgrimage is a walking, active metaphor for life (unifying the internal and the external) and the Christian spiritual journey towards Christ and his kingdom. Chapter Four continues this theme, arguing that Christian communities in post-Christendom, and above all liquid modernity, must find a new metaphor and identity for understanding their place in society, namely as pilgrim communities. Thus, the dissertation argues for monastic missional pilgrim communities. The Conclusion makes concrete applications for these communities amongst university students and young adults in liquid modern Spain.

Included in

Christianity Commons