Bullying reduction efforts benefit from combining universal and selected interventions. All children are involved occasionally as aggressor, victim or encouraging bystander, and some children are frequently involved. Bullying behavior is amply rewarded in the school environment. The Steps to Respect program aims to reduce rewards by increasing adult intervention and support for socially responsible student behavior. Cognitive-behavioral classroom curricula address peer norms, assertiveness, and general social-emotional skills. A random control trial showed decreases in playground bullying and negative bystander behavior after one year. Longitudinal analyses showed declines in all five problem behaviors after two years. Results were strongest when teachers also coached individuals involved in bullying. Compared to ‘zero-tolerance’ models, coaching offers advantages with respect to student reporting rates, discipline consistency, time-savings, and educational opportunities.
Frey, Karin; Van Schoiack Edstrom, Leihua; and Hirschstein, Miriam, "'The Steps to Respect' Program Uses a Multilevel Approach to Reduce Playground Bullying and Destructive Bystander Behaviors" (2005). Faculty Publications - Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) Program. 337.