Date of Award


Document Type



Graduate Department of Clinical Psychology


This study examined the effect of shame and gender on the concept of God, as measured by the Internalized Shame Scale and the Gorsuch Adjective Rating of God Scale, among Christian college-aged students at George Fox College. A total of 410 participants were randomly selected from the student population (190 male and 220 female) and sent the survey questionnaire through the campus mail.

The results, which were statistically analyzed using a two-way (2X3) ANOVA, demonstrated no significant main effects for shame or gender on each of the concept of God subscales. In addition, there was no significant interaction effect between shame and gender on each of the five concept of God subscales.

Although this study did not yield statistically significant results, it was viewed as a positive step toward determining significant differences on each of the five concept of God subscales of the Gorsuch Adjective Rating of God Scale with respect to different levels shame and gender among Christian college-aged students and possibly within different populations as well. It was assumed that the results of this research effort would facilitate the process of obtaining a better understanding of the distortions in the concept of God that individuals can develop as a result of the presence of shame. The most valuable contribution of this study was seen as the development of a foundation upon which future research can be built.

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