Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)


Graduate Department of Clinical Psychology

First Advisor

Celeste Jones, PsyD

Second Advisor

Elizabeth B. Hamilton, PhD

Third Advisor

Kristie Knows His Gun, PsyD


Adolescence is a challenging developmental period across domains of functioning. Parenting interactions impact one’s adjustment and well-being through this developmental period. These include Parental Autonomy Support, along with its reverse, psychological control, and Parental Involvement (Beato, Pereira, Barros, & Muris, 2016; Lansford et al., 2014; Levpušček, 2006; and Savard et al., 2013). Additionally, these parental characteristics influence the development of adolescent Self-Efficacy and its 3 subdomains: Emotional, Academic, and Social Self-Efficacy. The objective of this study was to explore how Parental Autonomy Support and Involvement, along with the subdomains of Parental Availability, Knowledge, and Concern and Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience predict adolescent Self-Efficacy. Students were recruited from one rural, public, combination middle and high school in the Pacific Northwest. Participants ranged in age from 12-18 and included Latin/x and European American youth, with an equal distribution of males to females. All students in the Pacific Northwest school were invited to participate. The Perceptions of Parents Scale-The Child Scale (POPS), the Self- Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQ-C), Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales- Adolescent Short Form (SEARS-A-SF) and a demographic questionnaire were administered to the participants. The first hypothesis was that Parental Autonomy Support, Parental Involvement, and Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience would positively predict Self-Efficacy in Academic, Social, and Emotional subdomains. The second hypothesis was that demographic variables would moderate the above relationships, indicating that racial/ethnic minorities and those with lower socioeconomic status required increased parental autonomy support, parental involvement, social-emotional functioning and resilience in order to establish similar levels of self-efficacy in academic, social, and emotional subdomains, as compared to their European American counterparts. The hypotheses were partially supported, with all groups (European American males, European American females, Latino males, and Latina females) having significant results suggesting parenting behaviors are impactful regardless of culture.