Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)


Graduate Department of Clinical Psychology


Hope has been designated by many theorists as playing an important part in both psychological and physical healing. However, to this point, whether or not time-limited psychotherapy can increase the level of hope in clients has not been adequately investigated. This study sought to measure the level of hope in participants pre-therapy and post-therapy by the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS). It also sought to explore the special problems that are encountered when conducting research within an Employee Assistance Program. Three hypotheses were proposed. The first stated that groups would differ in pretest hopelessness levels according to type of presenting problem. The second stated that groups would differ in post-treatment mean level of hopelessness, according to type of presenting problem. The third stated that time-limited therapy would increase the post-treatment mean level of hope in participants, when compared with pre-treatment measurement of hope. The level of hopelessness would decrease following time-limited therapy. The collection of data was hindered by several problems that are faced in EAP outcome studies: Initiating research, facilitating cooperation, and overcoming economically motivated concerns. Twenty-six participants were recruited to participate from an employee assistance program located in Portland, Oregon. No significant differences were found among the groups according to type of presenting problem. The fact that no posttest could be performed on the sample highlighted the difficulties that one encounters when conducting EAP outcome research. Attention was also focused on the paucity of available outcome studies utilizing psychological variables within the EAP movement, and some possible reasons for this lack of data.

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