Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)


Graduate Department of Clinical Psychology


This study examined the effects which graduate education, and religious orientation of counseling setting have on Christian counseling technique use among members of the Christian Association for Psychological Studies (CAPS). This research was part of a larger project and was undertaken in conjunction with the research efforts of Samuel Adams (1992). The sample consisted of 331 regular, clinical CAPS members who were randomly selected from the National Directory of CAPS Members. Each participant responded to a mailed survey which requested they complete a Professional Practice Questionnaire (PPQ), the Christian Counseling Techniques Inventory (CCTI), and the Spiritual Well-Being scale (SWB). A 3-WAY ANOVA, using a regression approach was conducted for the statistical analysis. The dependent variable was total CCTI score. The independent variables and their levels were: religious orientation of counseling setting, Christian or non-Christian; religious orientation of graduate education, Christian or non-Christian; and level of graduate education, masters or doctorate. Results indicated there were significant (alpha .05) main effects for level of graduate education and for religious orientation of counseling setting. There was no significant main effect for religious orientation of graduate education. There were no significant interaction effects. After the initial data analysis, religious orientation of counseling setting was reclassified as either; strongly Christian, moderately Christian, or marginally Christian. Additional statistical analysis was conducted using a 3-WAY ANOVA (2x2x3) via a regression approach. Results were consistent with the initial analysis. Among CAPS members sampled, masters level therapists used Christian counseling techniques with significantly greater frequency than doctoral level therapists. Therapists in strongly religious settings used Christian counseling techniques with significantly greater frequency than those in less religious settings. Counselors' and clients' religious values and the amount of psychological education which a counselor receives, are apparently important elements in the decision to use Christian counseling techniques in professional practice. Religious orientation of graduate education appears to have little impact on the frequency of technique use in clinical practice. Additional research should investigate the efficacy of specific techniques, establish the CCTI's scale properties as a reliable and valid measure, and investigate other variables such as gender, theoretical orientation, or counseling approach which may affect Christian counseling technique use.