Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)


Graduate Department of Clinical Psychology

First Advisor

Nancy Thurston, Psy.D.

Second Advisor

Kathleen Gathercoal, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Ardyce Grant, Ph.D.


The present study investigated the level of body image shame in Mainland United States 4th and 5th grade children to indigenous Hawaiian 4th and 5th grade children using two cards (1 and 6) from the Thurston-Cradock Test of Shame. The hypotheses of this study were:

I. The mainland sample would score higher on overall shame than the Hawaiian sample.

2. The Hawaiian sample responses would reflect a neutral and/or effective resolution of shame and body image in their stories, whereas the mainland sample would present stories demonstrating higher shame themes with less effective resolution.

3. Hawaiian males/females would have lower levels of overall shame vs. mainland males/females.

4. Mainland males/females would demonstrate more unresolved shame vs. Hawaiian males/females.

5. Mainland males would express shame through more aggression vs. Hawaiian males.

6. Mainland females would exhibit shaming content through more deflation than Hawaiian females. While none of the hypotheses were found to be fully supported, there were some interesting trends discussed.

The results of the study indicate that no one hypothesis was fully supported. However, while many of the results yielded no significant differences as assessed by inferential statistics, there are some interesting effect sizes, suggesting that with an increase in sample size there would likely be obvious group differences. Hypothesis 1 had a moderate effect size, however, the results are in the opposite direction than was predicted. Hypothesis 2 and hypothesis 4 suggested Mainlanders and Hawaiians responded more to cards 6 than l, but there were no significant group and/or gender differences found. In regard to Hypothesis 5, again, contradictory results were found. Specifically, Hawaiian females actually exhibiting higher levels of aggression than any other group, followed by Hawaiian males. Hypothesis 6, results were not significant for gender differences, but significant for differences among groups. These results are discussed with regard to cultural differences and areas of further research.

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