The Association of Habitual Shoe Wear with Ultrasound Defined Foot Muscle Morphology in Ugandan Participants

Lauren Bennett
Natalie Folkert
Alexander Grimsley
Jessika McClune
Jeff Houck, George Fox University
Tyler Cuddeford, George Fox University


Our study proposes to look at Ugandan individuals who have ambulated barefoot for the continuum of their lives to analyze if there are any structural differences when compared to habitually shod individuals with the use of ultrasound imaging. Though other biomechanical principals have been analyzed, no study has been done to measure intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscles of habitually unshod individuals to detect the possible presence of morphological adaptations.3

Ultrasound imaging has been found to be a reliable measurement tool for quantifying parameters of intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscles. Reliability studies have shown excellent inter-rater reliability among ultrasound operators, showing it to be a desirable measurement tool.