Quaker Studies


In the first instance authors should submit an electronic version of their article. The name of the author should not appear on the article but should be sent in a separate file together with contact information and a biographical note.

These should be sent electronically to the Editor at b.p.dandelion@bham.ac.uk

It is essential that the following guidelines are observed. Contributions that are not presented in house style will be returned for revision.


1. Typescripts should be formatted using one and a half line spacing, printed on one side only and numbered consecutively throughout.

2. A short abstract of 50–150 words and six ‘keywords’ MUST be supplied with your article.

3. All articles will be refereed and should normally be 5000–8000 words in length and no longer. Research Notes, typically of 3000 words, will also be considered and may be published at the Editor’s discretion.

4. Quoted matter, if more than three lines, should normally be indented, without quotation marks, and within a line space above and below the indented material.

5. Quotations of up to three lines should form part of the text, and should be indicated by single quotation marks. Double quotation marks should be used only for quotations within quotations. Note: when punctuation relates to the quoted words it goes inside the inverted commas; when it relates to the whole sentence, it goes outside. Punctuation should always follow in-text references in brackets. 6. In general, words and phrases in languages other than English should be italicised, both in main text and endnotes. All accents must be included. Greek, Hebrew, Russian, Korean, Arabic etc should be transliterated.

7. -ise spellings should be used (recognise, emphasise, organisation), not -ize

8. Always use ‘Religious Society of Friends’, not ‘Society of Friends’.

9. Page references should be in the following form: pp. 92-98, pp. 153-79, pp. 198-207. Always use short hyphens without spacing.

10. Dates should be expressed, 1605-09, 1678-92, 1681-1704. Always use short hyphens without spacing.

11. Authors of accepted articles and book reviews will be sent a first proof for return within two weeks of receipt. Corrections should be confined to typographical errors or to specific questions raised by the editors. Revisions cannot be accepted at this stage.


1. Where a gender-inclusive alternative is possible, it should be used. For example, ‘humanity’ rather than ‘man’ when referring to both sexes

2. When personal pronouns are used, both sexes should generally be included. For example, ‘The Christian has to acknowledge his or her dependence on grace’. (If this seems clumsy, use plural forms: ‘Christians have to acknowledge their dependence on grace’.)


1. Use upper case for personal pronouns of divine persons: He, His, etc.

2. In the case of the Church, use upper and lower case as follows:

Upper case (a) for the whole Church

(b) for a denomination, e.g. the Church of England

Lower case (a) for the building

(b) for the local church

(c) as an adjective: church teaching

also: churchgoer but High Church

3. In the case of Meeting House, use upper and lower case as follows:

Upper case , for a specific named Meeting House, Lower case, for the building

4. In the case of the Scriptures, use upper and lower case as follows:

(a) Bible and Scripture, and all scriptures of all religions, eg Qu’ran

(and in this instance, always use this form and not ‘Koran’); but biblical

and scriptural

(b) Gospel — when referring to a canonical book

(c) gospel — when speaking in more general terms

(d) God, Christ, Kingdom of God, and the Cross, the Crucifixion, the Resurrection, etc. Use the Upper case for personal pronouns referring to God and Christ.

4. Always use upper case for Meeting, Elder, Overseer, Clerk, Minister, Light, Inward Light, Spirit, Member, Attender.


1. Use of full stops in abbreviations:

When an abbreviation is formed by cutting a word short, a full stop must be used at the end; when an abbreviation is formed by the omission of internal letters, a full stop is not generally used. Thus: Rev., Prof., but St, Dr, JP, MP

2. CE, BCE should be unpunctuated and set in small capitals.

3. Note the following abbreviations:

ed. (editor, edited by)

eds (editors, edited by)

trans. (translator, translated by)

transs (translators, translated by)

rev. (reviser, revised by)

edn (edition)

repr. (reprint)

vol./vols (volume/ volumes)

4. LSF is to be used when referring to the Library of the Society of Friends at Friends House, London, England. ‘Woodbrooke Library’ is the correct term for that collection.

5. JFHS and DNB should be italicised without full stops between letters.


1. Brackets within brackets should be square, e.g. G. H. Jones (‘The Decree of Yahweh’, VT 15 [1965], pp. 336-44). However, the major exceptions to this rule is that square brackets should be used to indicate text inserted into a quotation by the author, or to indicate an original publication date of a modern reprint, in square brackets, e.g. [sic], (1999)[1901].

2. Numerals are written out in full when they are ten or below, when they begin a sentence and when they are an exact hundred, thousand, million, etc. Numbers of centuries should always be written out in full: twenty first century; nineteenth century etc.

Use of ‘late’, ‘early’, and ‘mid’ should not be hyphenated.

Use Roman numerals for vol. numbers of books, and series numbers; and Arabic numbers for journal issue nos.

3. The words ‘per cent’ should be used rather than the percentage symbol.

4. Possessives. For possessives of proper names ending in a ‘s’ add ’, e.g. Jones’ views.

5. Ellipses ( . . .): all quotations are in the nature of things an extract from a longer text, so ellipses should not be used simply to indicate that in the original text there are preceding and following words.

6. Use:

focussed, focussing

first, secondly, or first, second (but not firstly)

acknowledgment, judgment

analyse (not analyze)

7. ‘E.g.’ and ‘i.e.’ are only permissible in the body of the text if they introduce a list or are within brackets. Likewise, please avoid ‘etc.’ unless it is in an endnote.

Do not use op. cit. and ibid. and idem.

Avoid ‘f.’ and ‘ff.’ and ‘et seq.’

8. Decades should be represented thus, 1950s, 1860s, without apostrophe.

9. Diagrams, tables, and charts should be all titled as Figures and numbered sequentially through the article. They should be sent as separate computer files but their approximate location within the article should be clearly marked, e.g. ‘Figure 1 about here’.


Please observe the following abbreviations:

Gen. Song

Exod. Isa.

Lev. Jer.

Num. Lam.

Deut. Ezek.

Josh. Dan.

Judg. Hos.

Ruth Joel

Sam. Amos

Kgs Obad.

Chron. Jon.

Ezra Mic.

Neh. Nah.

Est. Hab.

Job Zeph.

Ps. (plural Pss.) Hag.

Prov. Zech.

Eccl. Mal.

Mt. Col.

Mk Thess.

Lk. Tim.

Jn Tit.

Acts Phlm.

Rom. Heb.

Cor. Jas.

Gal. Pet.

Eph. Jn

Phil. Jude


Use Arabic numerals throughout: 2 Cor. not II Cor.

Colons between chapter and verse numbers: Lk. 6:12

Hyphens to mark sequences of verses:

Jn 10:12-14, 16 (N.B. the space after the comma).

Short hyphens for sequences extending beyond a single chapter: Mt. 6-9

Semicolons to divide distinct references to different chapters of the same book:

John 6:15; 14:12

Semicolons to divide single references to separate books: Lk. 4:12; 2 Cor. 3:8

Biblical references may be placed in parentheses in the text - e.g. (Mt. 2:6-8)

- or in the endnotes but please be consistent.


References may be made using either a) endnotes or b) the Author/Date in-text system with a full list of references at the end of the article.

Short title: when a book, a chapter or an article is referred to again using the endnote

system, after its first occurrence, a short title form is used, e.g. Martyn, ‘Have we Found Elijah?’, p. 235.

The author-date style of referencing reduces the need for endnotes, by embedding references to cited works in the text in abbreviated form (e.g. Brown 1980: 123). Note there is no punctuation after the author’s name and a space always follows the colon between the date and the page reference (which omits ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’). Several works by the same author are cited by date only, the dates being separated by commas; when page numbers are given, the year dates are separated by semicolons:

(Jones 1963, 1972a, 1986)

(Jones 1963a: 10; 1972; 1986: 123)

Where there is more than one work by the author for the same year, these should be marked as a, b, c, eg Jones 1963a

Where there are authors with the same surname, initials should be included, e.g. Jones, A., 1963, Jones, B., 1984.

Lists of different authors should be set out chronologically: (Jones 1963a, Ward 1976, Scott 1980).

Where the Social Science system of referencing has been used, a list of references cited must obviously be included at the end of the article.

It should be divided up into:

Manuscript Sources

Published Sources and Theses

Each single reference should follow the claim or source it refers to. References should not be should not be grouped together at the end of a paragraph or section.

Seventeenth century pamphlets may be referred to by their reference number from Donald Wing’s Short-title Catalogue of Books, 1641-1700.

The order of data for bibliographic entries for a book in an endnote or in a list of references is the following:

author(s), editor(s) (ed., eds) comma (with surname first, then initials only, with space between initals as below)

title (colon: subtitle in lower case) comma

in editor (names followed by (ed.) if there is an editor as well as an author) semicolon

translator (trans. followed by name and initials) semicolon

series comma

number in series semicolon

number of volumes (e.g. 2 vols.) semicolon

reprint status (repr.) comma

place of publication,

[comma, US State using standard abbreviation (if USA)] colon

publisher comma

edition (e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn) comma

date, [original publication date in brackets where required] full stop

Book and journal titles are in italics., eg

Book: Gunton, C. E., The One, The Three and The Many, Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press, 2nd edn, 1993.

Please note articles from periodicals or titles of book chapters are printed within single quotation marks. Page numbers should always be included with a space after pp.

Chapter/article in a collected volume: Martyn, J. L., ‘Have we Found Elijah?’, in Hamerton-Kelly, R., and Scroggs, R., (eds), Jews, Greeks and Christians: cultures in late antiquity, trans. Smith, J.; Series in Jewish and Christian Relations, 21; Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2nd edn, 1976, pp. 56-87.

Journal article: Barrett, L., ‘Theology as Grammar: regulative principles or paradigms and practices?’, Modern Theology 25 (1988), pp. 155-72.

Include the issue number of a journal within a volume, e.g. 25/2, only if page numbering

is not consecutive within the volume.

The following conventions should also be observed in the list of references and endnotes:

1. For more than three authors or editors it is permissible to use et al only on the second mention of a reference in the endnotes, but it can be used as part of the in-text referencing system.

2. In the list of references, multiple entries for an author should be arranged in chronological order. Second and subsequent entries for the same author should not repeat the author’s name but use five short hyphens followed by a comma.

3. Title and subtitle. Between the title and subtitle of a book there should be a colon, not a full stop (though occasionally a book has a more complicated title and a full stop is more appropriate). The sub-title should be in lower case.

4. More than one place of publication. When a publisher has more than one office, only the first stated or the head office should be given.

5. More than one publisher. Where a book has been published by more than one publisher, use the following style:

Exeter: Paternoster Press; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.

6. For web references, please include the ‘http://’ prefix where it is part of the address. Please date all web references in the style: 15/02/2004

Please ensure you do not use a mixture of the two referencing systems. Endnotes may be used for explanatory purposes by those using the author-date system but any references within the endnotes must then use the author-date system.


Reviews of books need to begin with the following bibliographic information, and where possible the price, in the following order.

Name of author(s), initials, Title of book (number in Series), place of publisher: publisher, date. Number of pages, including front material (e.g. pp. xv + 220), ISBN number, Cloth or Paper, price(s) in pounds sterling and/or US dollars.

Reviews should end with the author’s name and institutional affiliation.

Reviews need to follow the same style guidelines as above.


Authors of articles will receive three complimentary copies of the journal in which their article appears, authors of research notes and book reviews one.