The purpose of the current study was to develop a psychometrically sound questionnaire that measures everyday memory. Specifically, it was hypothesized that both the Self Report and the Observer forms of the Everyday Memory Survey (EMS (Hall & Adams, 2004) would demonstrate sound psychometric properties with respect to norms, reliability and validity. The EMS combined standardization sample included 920 male and female adults aged 18 to 85+ years. Analyses yielded coefficient alphas for the EMS Self-Report and Observer forms at .96 and .97, respectively and within specific age groups from .92 to .98. Statistically significant test-retest coefficients of .91 and .95 were obtained for the total EMS Self-Report and Observer scores, respectively. Age effects were statistically significant for the EMS Self-Report and the Observer forms. These findings indicated that everyday memory scores were stable from age 20 to age 64, after which scores showed a decline. Criterion validity was established for both of the EMS forms by demonstrating a relationship between the EMS and several Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning- 2nd Edition (WRAML2) (Adams & Sheslow, 2003) Index scores. Additional findings showed that the EMS distinguished between clinical and non-clinical populations; therefore, discriminant validity was established for both the EMS versions. An exploratory Factor Analysis indicated an initial-four factor solution that accounted for 54% (Selfreport) and 61% (Observer) of the total explained variance; however, a second order exploratory Factor Analysis yielded a single factor accounting for 81.8% (SelfReport) and 85.8% (Observer) of the total explained variance, thereby suggesting a single factor solution (everyday memory) as the best fit for the current data. Therefore, the results were interpreted as indicating that the EMS is a well-standardized, reliable, and valid questionnaire that measures everyday memory. Given its sound psychometric properties, the EMS affords clinicians a quick, reliable, and valid way to ecologically monitor, manage and treat patients with known or potential memory impairment.
Hall, Trevor A., "The Everyday Memory Survey: Development and Psychometric Analysis" (2004). Faculty Publications - Grad School of Clinical Psychology. 68.